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ADHD : It used to be called Attention Deficit Disorder, or ADD. Accordingly, DSM-5 has reclassified ADHD from “Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood or Adolescence” to “Neurodevelopmental Disorders.” The worldwide estimate of ADHD prevalence in children is 5% (Cortese et al., 2012). Revised DSM-IV criteria for ADHD require that children suffer impairment from their symptoms in more than one setting, and the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines recommend obtaining information from both the parent and the teacher. [1,5] It is well known, however, that there are frequent and significant discrepancies between parent and teacher ratings of children being evaluated for ADHD.  Safer noted: "The agreement between parent and teacher informants on the features of ADHD is quite low in virtually all studies."  For example, Mitsis et al examined 74 clinically referred children and found that "parent and teacher agreement regarding the presence of individual symptoms in the school setting was rarely better than chance" and that "agreement between parents and teachers on structured diagnostic interview regarding the categorical diagnoses of ADHD
is relatively poor."  The American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines suggest that these discrepancies might be due to differences between settings in "expectations, levels of structure, behavioral management strategies, and/or environmental circumstances."  If these factors do impact behavior and symptom expression (eg, attentiveness, level of activity), which most providers would acknowledge, it becomes more difficult to attribute symptoms to an intrinsic disease condition.